The following bibliography is the list of cedid publications included at the end of Gasprinskii's essay Mebadi-yi Temeddün-i Islmiyan-i Rus (First Steps Toward Civilizing the Russian Muslims). Many of the bibliographic entries have been annotated by Edward J. Lazzerini. For an English translation of this important essay and commentary, see Turkic Modernism at the Turn of the Twentieth Century by Edward J. Lazzerini.

Part I
Books Pertaining to Education

1. Abdullah Muhammed Feyzi, Muhtasar Ilm-i Hal (A Short Catechism),Kazan, tip. B.L. Dombrovskago, 1316/1898-1899, 58 p. [H]. Other editions: 2nd, lito-tip. I.N. Kharitonova, 1903, 56 p. [H]; 1908, 56 p. [H].

2. Abdullah Muhammed Feyzi, Muhtasar Coğrafya-yi Umumi (A Short Universal Geography), Kazan, tip. imper. Universiteta, 1898, 95 p. [H]. Other editions: 2nd, lito-tip. I.N. Kharitonova, 1905, 84 p. [H]; 3rd, tipo-lit. I.V. Ermolaeva, 1908, 88 p. [H].

3. Abdullah Muhammed Feyzi, Kavaid-i Türkiye (The Rules of Turkish), Kazan, tipo-lit. M. Chirkova, 1898, 42 p. [H]. Other editions: 2nd, tipo-lit. I.V. Ermolaeva, 1907, 40 p. [H].

4. Abdullah Nametullin Vyatkali, Kırk Rayet-i Türki (Forty Turkic Banners), Kazan, n.p., 1899.

5. Abdullah Sadiki al-Cayki, Tarih-i Enbiya (A History of the Prophets), Part I, Kazan, tip. B.L. Dombrovskago, 1895, 63 p. [H]. Other editions: 1897, 63 p. [H]; tip. Chirkova, 1899, 43 p. [H]; Part II, tip. Ermolaeva, 1907, 3 p. [H]; other editions: tip. "Millet", 1909, 34 p. [H].

6. Abdülkayyum al-Nasiri, Ahlak Risalesi (A Treatise on Morals), Kazan, tip. imper. Universiteta, 1890, 24 p. Other editions: 1893, 24 p. [H]; 1898, 24 p. [H, TE]; 1904, 24 p. [H].
On Abdülkayyum al-Nasiri, see note 18.

7. Abdülkayyum al-Nasiri, Enmuzec. Lisanımıznın Sarf ve Nahv Kaideleri (A model. The Grammatical and Syntactical Rules of Our Language), Kazan, tip. imper. Universiteta, 1895, 87 p. [H].
One of al-Nasiri's major concerns was the creation of a Tatar literary language free from Arabic and Persian borrowings and closer to the Volga region vernacular than Chagatai. Enmuzec is an attempt by Nasiri to systematize his work in this area. See A. Sa'adi, Tatar Edebiyati Tarihi (Kazan, 1926), 51-58.

8. Abdülkayyum al-Nasiri, Hesablık (A Manual of Arithmetic), Kazan, tip. imper. Universiteta, 1873, 52 p. [H]. Other editions: 1899, 85 p.
This was a pioneering work for which Nasiri had to create appropriate Tatar vocabulary for the mathematical terminology. He wrote the book to satisfy the need for a mathematical textbook in his own school, where he sought to introduce secular subjects into the curriculum. See Ch. Lemercier-Quelquejay, art. cit., 12. To the same genre of scientific writings belong Ilm-i Hendese and the three parts of Usul-i Coğrafya-yi Kebir listed below.

9. Abdülkayyum al-Nasiri, Ilm-i Hendese (Geometry), Kazan, tip. imper. Universiteta, 1895, 24 p. [H].

10. Abdülkayyum al-Nasiri, Mükemmel Rusça ve Tatarca Lugat (A complete Russian and Tatar Dictionary), Kazan, tip. imper. Universiteta, 1892, 263 p. [LO, TE]. Other editions: 2nd, 1905 1906, 63 p. [TE, WL].
This work is more commonly known under its Russian title Polnyi russko tatarskii slovar.

11. Abdülkayyum al-Nasiri, Nümunevi Kavatid-i Rusya ve Tatarya (The Pattern of the Rules of Russian and Tatar), Kazan, tip. imper. Universiteta [?], 1891.

12. Abdülkayyum al-Nasiri, Otuz Va'z (Thirty Sermons), Kazan, tip. imper. Universiteta, 1888, 180 p. [TE].
A collection of the teachings of certain great Muslim saints—including Anas ibn Malik, Ibn 'Abbas, and even Jesus Christ—for use by imams during Ramazan and other religious feasts. The texts are in Arabic.

13. Abdülkayyum al-Nasiri, Qavatid-i Lisan-i Arab (The Rules of the Arabic Language), Kazan, tip. imper. Universiteta, 1896, 74 p.
Nasiri's textbook was evidently used in old-method as well as new-method schools. See Ia. Koblov, Konfessional'nyia shkoly Kazanskikh tatar (Kazan Tatar Confessional Schools), Kazan, 1915, p. 24.

14. Abdülkayyum al-Nasiri, Kavaid-i Kıraat-i Rusiye (The Rules for Reading Russian), Kazan, tip. imper. Universiteta, 1889, 24 p.
A Russian primer for young Tatars.

15. Abdülkayyum al-Nasiri, Usl-i Coğrafya-yi Kebir. I: Azya Kıt'ası (The Fundamental Principles of Geography. I: The Asian Continent), Kazan, tip. imper. Universiteta, 1894, 206 p. [H]; II: Afriqa Kıta'sı (The African Continent), Kazan, tip. imper. Universiteta, 1898, 2oo p. [H]; III: Evsaf-i Ceziret ül-Arab (Arabistan) (Description of the Arabian Peninsula, or Arabia), Kazan, tip. imper. Universiteta, 1899, 138 p. [H]

16. Abdurrahman ibn Ismail, Muallim-i Sarf-i Lisan al-Arab (A teacher of Arabic Grammar), Kazan, n.p., 1896.

17. Abdüsselam Ahundzade, Risale-yi Umdetülahkm (A Treatise on the Fundamentals of Legal Decisions), part I, Baku, n.p., 1311/1893-1894, 136 p.
Abdüsselam Ahundzade (1843 or 1844-1906), was born and educated in Transcaucasia. In 1872, after serving as imam in the village of Salyan, he departed for Tiflis where he was appointed instructor of Turkic and Persian at the Muslim Spiritual Assembly. Seven years later he became a teacher of Islamic law, Turkic, and Persian at the well-known Gori Pedagogical College. In 1894 he was named head of the Spiritual Assembly and Şeyhül Islm of Transcaucasia. For brief biographical notices on Ahundzade, see P/T, 33 (Sept. 17, 1894), 66, and Zaman Kalindar, op. cit., 35.

18. Abdüsselam Ahundzade, Tarih-i Muqaddes-i Enbiya (The History of the Holy Prophets), Part I, Baku, lit. G.I. Demurova, 1310/1892-1893, 228 p. [H].

19. Ahmed Hadi al-Maksudi, Al-Durus al-Sifahiya (Oral Lessons), Part I, Kazan, tip. B.L. Dombrovskago, 1899, 192 p, [TE]. Other editions: 4th, 1910, 152 p. [H]. Part II, Kazan, n.p., 1899.
Educator and journalist, al-Maksudi (1867-1945) was an important figure in the jadidist movement. Along with the numerous educational texts that he wrote, he founded in 1906 the Kazan newspaper Yıldız (The Star), which served as an organ for moderate reformism. On al-Maksudi and his more famous brother Sadreddin, see A. Battal-Taymas, Iki Maksudiler (Istanbul, 1959), as well as P/T, No. 26 (March 15, 1906), 1-2.

20. Ahmed Hadi al-Maksudi, Muallim-i Evvel (The First Teacher), Part I, Kazan, tip. imper. Universiteta, 1892, 142 p. [H, TE]. Other editions: 2nd, 1897, 72 p. [H]; 3rd, 1898, 64 p. [H, NYPL]; 4th, tipo-lit. M. Chirkova, 1900, 88 p. [H]; 5th, tipo-lit. Brat'ev Karimovykh, 1902, 70 p. [H]; 7th, lito-tip. I.N. Kharitonova, 1904, 56 p. [H]; 10th, 1908, 48 p. [H]; and 1909, 48 p. [TE]; I4th, 1910, 48 p. [H].
A new-method primer based upon the ideas of Gasprinskii, with whom Maksudi had become acquainted while teaching at the Zincirli medrese in Bahçesaray. The publication of at least fourteen editions of this textbook attests its great popularity. Maksudi also wrote a companion volume entitled Muallim-i Sani (The Second Teacher). See A. Battal-Taymas, op. cit., 58.

21. Ahmed Hadi al-Maksudi, Al-Kavanin al-Nahviya (The Rules of Grammar), Kazan, n.p., 1893. Other editions: 3rd, lito-tip. I.N. Kharitonova, 1911, 60 p. [H].
An advertisement in P/T, No. 12 (March, 24, 1894), 12, reports that Al-Kavanin al-Nahviya is an Arabic grammar "prepared according to the new method." In a previous issue of the same newspaper (No. 5, February 4, 1894, p. 10), Gasprinskii comments that Maksudi's textbook is better than those turned out by the Egyptians.

22. Ahmed Şakir, Ahlak Risalesi (A Treatise on Morals), Parts I and II, Kazan, tip. B.L. Dombrovskago, 1899, 23 and 22 p. [H].

23. Alimcan ibn Muhammedcan al-Barudi, Medhal-i Arabiye (Introductory Principles of Arabic), Kazan, tip. B.L. Dombrovskago, 1894, 55 p. [H]. Other editions: tip. I.N. Kharitonova, 1903, 54 and 32 p. [H].
Al-Barudi (1857-1921) was a well-known müderris (medrese professor) and reformer. He was the founder of the Muhammadiyya Medrese in Kazan which instituted a curriculum composed of both religious and secular subjects, including the Russian language. An active jadidist, he wrote a number of textbooks for use in the reformed schools; Medkhal-i Arabiye is probably one of those works. Barudi is the subject of two studies: Yusuf Akçuraoğlu, Damulla Alimcan al-Barudi (Kazan, 1907), and A. Battal-Taymas, Alimcan Barudi (Istanbul, 1958). One should also consult the review Al-Din va'l-Adap (issued irregularly beginning in March, 1906), of which Barudi was editor-in-chief.

24. Bahaeddin al-Maksudi, Muallim-i Hat-i Süls ve Nesih (A Manual for Teaching "süls" and "neshi" Styles of Calligraphy), Ufa, n.p., 1891.

25. Cherniaevskii, A.O., Vatan Dili, Part I: Türki-Azerbaycan Dilinde (The National Language, Part I: The Türki-Azerbaijan Language), Tiflis, n.p., 1895. Other editions: 3rd, 1896, 70 p. [H]; 4th, 1898, 71 p. [H]; 5th, 1910, 70 p. [H]; 6th, 1908, 65 p. [H].
A.O. Cherniaevskii (1840-1894) was an Azerbaidjan-born Russian who served as director of the Gori Pedagogical College from its inception in 1876. His textbook Vatan Dili—first published in 1883—was a popular grammar of Azeri Turkic utilizing the phonetic method of presentation. A brief study of Cherniaevskii's pedagogical ideas is L.Vekilova, "Metodicheskoe nasledie A.O. Cherniaevskogo," Russkii iazyk v natsional'noi shkole, No. 4 (1964), 34-38.

26. Fehmi Efendi, Usl-i Farsi (The Fundamentals of Persian), n.p., 1894.

27. Gasprinskii, Ismail, Cihan Name (An Atlas), Bahçesaray, "Tercüman" matbaası, 1889, 14 p.
Concerning this publication (or perhaps a later edition), the St. Petersburg newspaper Russkaia zhizn' wrote that Gasprinskii had accomplished something worthwhile by publishing an atlas with a Tatar text; the hope was also expressed that he would continue to publish a whole series of scientific and belletristic works in that language. "Efforts such as this will eliminate one of the major obstacles to the spread of education among non-Russian peoples: the lack of textbooks in the native tongues." (P/T, No. 14 (April 10, 1894), 28.)

28. Gasprinskii, Ismail, Hesab. Muhtasar Ilm-i Hesab ve Mesail-i Hesabiye (Calculations. A Short Book on Arithmetic and Mathematical Problems), Bahçesaray, "Tercüman" matbaası, 1897, 46 p. [H].
A textbook designed to teach the four fundamental arithmetical processes, with each section followed by exercises. The text lacks any introduction that might have discussed the expected duration of the course.

29. Gasprinskii, Ismail, Hoca-yi Sibyan (The Teacher of Children), Bahçesaray, "Tercüman" matbaası, 1884. Other editions: 3rd, 1892, 90 p. [H, IUK]; 7th, 1898, 52 p. [H, D]. See note 27.

30. Gasprinskii, Ismail, Kiraat-i Türk (The reading of Turkic), Bahçesaray, "Tercüman" matbaası, 1886. Other editions: 1894, 26 p. [H].
A textbook to be used in a new-method mekteb after the students had mastered Hoca-yi Sibyan.

31. Gasprinskii, Ismail, Ser Meşk Destesi (Models of Calligraphy), Bahçesaray, "Tercüman" matbaası [?], 1893.

32. Gasprinskii, Ismail, Şerait al-Islm (The Stipulations of Islam), Bahçesaray, "Tercüman" matbaası, 1897, 83 p. [H].

33. Hris Feyzi, Hifz-i Sıhhat-i Izdivac (Preserving the Correctness of Marriage), Kazan, n.p., 1901.
A jadid pedagogue, Hris Feyzi was also editor-in-chief of the Kazan Tatar newspaper Ahbar (The News). See A. Bennigsen and Ch. Lemercier-Quelquejay, op. cit., 71.

34. Hris Feyzi, Rehber-i Iml (A guide to Orthography), Orenburg, n.p., 1900.

35. Hris Feyzi, Ta'lim-i Kıraat-i ve Tahrir-i Türk (Exercises for Reading and Writing Turkic), Kazan, n.p., 1900.

36. Ibrahim Işmurad, Coğrafya Matematiki (The Mathematics of Geography), Kazan, n.p., 1889.

37. Hayrullah ibn Osman, Sarf-i Arabi Tatbikatlı (The Application of Arabic Grammar), Kazan, n.p., 1898 [H].
The author was an Ufa ahund (theologian). His textbook was used in old-method as well as new-method schools, according to Ia. Koblov, op. cit., 24.

38. Lutfullah (Imam), Tercüme al-Mesail ve Cevab al-Sail (Interpreting Questions and an Answer to the Critics), Kazan, n.p., 1898.

39. Mansurof, Abdurrahman, Muallim al-Sıbyan (The Teacher of Children), Kazan, tip. B.L. Dombrovskago, 1899 or 1900, 32 p. [H].

40. Muhammed ibn Fatih Mulla Muhammed 'Ata, Ebvab al-Tasrif (Aspects of Grammatical Inflection), Kazan, n.p., 1895.

41. Muhammed Şerif Ahmedcanoğlu, Coğrafya-yi Umumi(A Universal Geography), Kazan, n.p., 1898.

42. Osman Akçokraklı, Hutut-i Islmiye (Islamic Writings), St. Petersburg. n.p., 1900.
Osman Nuri Akçokraklı was a Crimean Tatar historian, translator of Russian literature into Turkic, and a faithful disciple of Gasprinskii. A one-time collaborator with the newspapers Ulfet (Rapprochement) and Vaqt (The Times), he joined the staff of P/T in 1906.

43. Kısas al-Enbiya ve Ahval-i Düvel al-Islm (The History of the Prophets and the Affairs of the States of Islam), Kazan, tip. Brat'ev Karimovykh, 1901, 132 p. [H]. Other editions: lito-tip. I.N. Kharitonova, 1906, 120 p. [H]; 3rd, n.d., 120 p. [H]; 4th, tip. A. Umerova, 1909, 108 p. [H].

44. Rusçeden-Kırgızcaya Kırgızcadan-Rusçeye Lugt (A Russian-Kirgiz, Kirgiz-Russian Dictionary), Tashkent, n.p., 1883.

45. Sadreddin ibn Nizameddin al-Maksudi, Tercüman Rusi (The Translation of Russian), Part I, Kazan, tip. B.L. Dombrovskago, 1900, 60 p. [TE].
Of the two Maksudi brothers, Sadreddin (1879-1957) was perhaps the more famous. Well-educated—he took a degree at the Sorbonne in Paris—and an inveterate traveller, he became a major Muslim political figure through his participation in the Russian State Dumas. Besides A. Battal-Taymas, Iki Maksudiler, a special issue of Türk Kültürü, No. 53 (March 1967) has been devoted to Sadreddin.

46. Salihcan ibn Muhammedcan al-Barudi, Sarf-i Arabi (Arabic grammar), Kazan, tip. B.L. Dombrovskago, 1898, 71 p. [H].
Salihcan ibn Muhammedcan al-Barudi was a Kazan mulla.

47. Salihcan ibn Muhammedcan al-Barudi, Takrib al-Ezhan min Tecvid al-Kur'an (The Meeting of Minds by Means of the Proper Recitation of the Kor'an), Kazan, Khazane matbaası, 1309/1891 1892, 23 p. [H].
According to Gasprinskii, P/T, No. 10 (March 19, 1893), 19, Takrib al-Ezhan is "a guide to the correct reading and pronunciation of Arabic."

48. Sarf-i Türk (A grammar of Turkic), n.p., 1897.

49. Şakircan ibn Ahmedcan al-Tahiri, Beda al-Ta'lim nam Mükemmel Elifba (A Complete Primer Known as the Beginning of Education), Kazan, tip. imper. Universiteta, 1893, 104 p. [H]

50. Şakircan ibn Ahmedcan al-Tahiri, Muhtasar Kavaid al-Tecvid (Brief Rules for Reading the Kur'an), Kazan, tip. imper. Universiteta, 1895, 40 p. [H]. Other editions: 2nd, 1317/1899-1900, 32 p. [H].

51. Şakircan Ahundzade, Akaid-i Islmiye (The Doctrines of Islam), Kazan, n.p., 1899.

52. Sultan Mecid Ganizade, Istilah-i Azerbaycan (The Idiom of Azerbaijan), Baku, n.p., 1890.
Sultan Mecid Ganizade (1866-?), an Azeri pedagogue and writer who was very active in the cedidist movement, was well acquainted with Gasprinskii and accompanied the Crimean reformer on his important journey to Central Asia in 1893. A brief biographical note on Ganizade is found in Zaman Kalindar 1910 (Kazan, 1909), 39.

53. Sultan Mecid Ganizade, Kilid-i Edebiyat (The Key to Literature), Baku, tip. Akhundova, 1901, 72 p.
A collection of readings, in Persian, for beginning students. See P/T, No. 34 (September 16, 1901), 134.

54. Tecvid (The Art of Reading the Kur'an), n.p., 1898. [H] Possibly the work of M. Akçuraoğlu, published in Bahçesaray in 1897.

55. Usl-i Tedris (A Method of Instruction), Kazan, n.p., 1899.

Part II
Books Pertaining to Science and Literature

56. A., Yel Gemisi (The Wind Boat), Tiflis, n.p., 1889.

57. A. Alvayzi, Tecrübename (A Book of Experiments [?]), Tashkent, n.p., 1891.

58. Abbas Halifa, Zübdet ul-Feraiz ve Ilm al-Miras (The Fundamentals of Inheritance Laws and the Science of Bequests), Kazan, n.p., 1888.

59. Abdülallam Feyizhanoğlu, Muharrik al-Efkr (The Movement of Ideas), Kazan, tip. imper. Universiteta, 1893, 46 p. [H, IUK].
The brother of Hüseyn Feizhanov (note 7), Abdülallam (d. 1910) studied Russian after receiving a medrese education. His book Muharrik al-Efkr provides a critical discussion of the political, and particularly, the economic status of the Russian Tatars. As such, it would appear to be a significant contribution to the literature of the Muslim "renaissance" of the pre-1905 period. Brief descriptions of this work can be found in A. Zeki Velidi Togan, Bügünkü Türkili (Türkistan) ve yakin Tarihi (Istanbul, 1942-1947), 540-541; and P/T, No. 3 (April 18, 1893), 26.

60. Abdullah al-Mahdumi, Taaddüd Zevcati Hifz-i Sıhhata Tatbik (The Application of the Science of Good Health to Polygamy), Orenburg, tip. Karimova, 1901, 20 p. [H].

61. Abdullah Sadiki al-Cayki, Büyük bir Servet-i Hikye (A Great Wealth of Tales), Kazan, n.p., 1898.

62. Abdülkayyum al-Nasiri, Efsane-yi Gülruh ve Kamercan. Roman (The tale of Gülruh and Kamercan. A novel), Kazan, tip. imper. Universiteta, 1896, 54 p. [H, TE].
The tale of princess Gülruh, daughter of the Emperor of China, and Kamercan, son of the Şah of Khwarezm. N.F. Katanov published a review of this work in Deiatel', No. 4 (1897).

63. Abdülkayyum al-Nasiri, Fevakih ul-Cülesa (The Fruits of the Companions), Kazan, tip. imper. Universiteta, 1884, 615 p. [LO, TE, TTK].
Reflecting his wide range of interests, this volume by Nasiri is a collection of tales and anecdotes drawn from the Kur'an and the Hadiths concerning all aspects of life. Appended to the work are a number of specimens of Tatar folk literature.

64. Abdülkayyum al-Nasiri, Hava ve Su (Air and Water), Kazan, n.p., 1889.

65. Abdülkayyum al-Nasiri, Ilm-i Ziraat (The Science of Agriculture), Kazan, tip. imper. Universiteta, 1892, 24 p. [TE].
Contains advice on how to sow grain and cultivate gardens.

66. Abdülkayyum al-Nasiri, Havas-i Nebatat (The Particular Qualities of Plants), Kazan, tip. imper. Universiteta, 1893, 112 p.
Provides information on some three hundred and thirteen useful plants, with their names given in Russian, Tatar, and Latin.

67. Abdülkayyum al-Nasiri, Lehce-yi Tatari (A Tatar Dictionary), 2 vols, Kazan, tip. imper. Universiteta, 1895-1896, 22~6 p. and 156 p. [TE].
This represents the first dictionary of its kind in that Nasiri drew all of his descriptive examples from the Tatar spokon language. He ignored the written language of the time, overwhelmed as it was by Arabic, Persian, and Central Asian influences, in order to create a new literary language out of the Tatar vernacular.

68. Abdülkayyum al-Nasiri, Kavatid-i Kitabet (The Book of Regulations), Kazan, tip. imper. Universiteta, 1892, 32 p. [H].

69. Abdülkayyum al-Nasiri, Kırk Vezir Kıssası (The Tale of the Forty Vezirs), Kazan, tip. imper. Universiteta, 1881, 160 p. Other editions: 3rd, 1888, 160 p. [LO]; 4th, 1891, 160 p. [TE]; 5th, 1896, 160 p. [BrM, H]; St. Petersburg, tip. Boraganskago, 1902, 160 p. [H]; Kazan, tip. imper. Universiteta, 1907, 160 p. [TE]; 1908, 160 p. [H]; tip. B. L. Dombrovskago, 1910, 160 p. [H, WL].
A translation into Tatar from the Ottoman Turkish of Şeyhzade.

70. Abdülkayyum al-Nasiri, Zübdet min Tevarih al-Rus (Excerpts from Russian History), Kazan, tip. imper. Universiteta, 1890, 27 p. [TE].
A pamphlet containing the biographies of the Russian sovereigns from 862 to 1880. It represents one of the few of Nasiri's historical works that were published.

71. Abdurrahim Kazanli Efendi, Kitab-i Mühimmet ul-Zaman (The Book of the Important Affairs), Kazan, tip. Vecheslava, 1889, 64 p. [IUK].

72. Abdurrahman al-Mansuri, Ma'lümat-i Nafiye (Useful information), Orenburg, n.p., 1901.

73. Abulgazi Bahadır Khan, Tarih-i Şecere-yi Türk (A History of Turkic Genealogy), trans. from Chagatay by Abdulallam Feyizhanoğlu, Kazan, tip. imper. Universiteta, 1891, 222 p.
The author is the famous seventeenth-century Khivan historian. His Tarih-i Şecere-yi Türk is a historical and genealogical study of the Şaybanid dynasty, which traced its ancestry to Chinggis Khan. On Abulgazi, see Janos Eckmann, "Die tschaghataische Literatur", in Philologiae turcicae fundamenta (Wiesbaden, 1964), II, 382-385.

74. Ahmed Hadi Maksudi, Mantik-i Cedid (The New Logic), Kazan, n.p., 1900. See item 19.

75. Ahmed Midhat, Yaşlık Yollarlık (The Ways of Youth), trans. by Sadreddin al-Maksudi, Kazan, tip. B.L. Dombrovskago, 1897, 30 p. [H].
Besides playing an important role in the development of journalism in the late Ottoman Empire, Ahmed Midhat (1844-1913) was a prolific writer both of fiction and works of popularized interest. Most, if not all, of his writings were instruments of social criticism or aimed at bringing modern European knowledge to his compatriots in a simple and attractive form. In this, and many other respects, there is a striking similarity between Ahmed Midhat and Gasprinskii, and indirect evidence points to the influence of the former upon the latter. For brief but penetrating discussions of Midhat, see B. Lewis, "Ahmad Midhat," Encyclopedia of Islam (London, 1960), I, 289-290, and N. Berkes, op. cit., 281-285.

76. Ahmed Şakir Mulla, Kurban Risalesi (Treatise on Sacrifice), Kazan, n.p., 1898.

77. Alekseyef, Sart ve Rus Mükalemesi (A Sart and Russian Dialogue), Tashkent, n.p., 1884.

78. Ali Asgar Kemal, Bahtsız Yiğit. Dram (The Unfortunate Young Man. A Drama), Kazan, tip. Karimova, 1900, 20 p. [H]. Other editions: Elektro-tip. Sarafa, 1907, 108 p. [NYPL, TE].
Ali Akbaroğlu Kemaleddin, better known as Ali Asgar Kemal (1879-1933), was a talented poet and dramatist credited with being one of the founders of the Tatar national theater. The above drama was his first. A chapter is devoted to Kemal in the study by M.N. Gainullin and G.G. Vazieva, Tatar dbiyaty XX yz (Kazan, 1954), 86-202.

79. Alimat al-Benat Hanım, Hüsn al-Vasiyet (Good Advice), St. Petersburg, tipolit. I. Boraganskago, 1899, 20 p. [H].
Alimat al-Benat is a pseudonym meaning "erudite woman." According to A. Vambry (art. cit., 77), it is the pen name of Hanifa Hanım, the daughter of a certain Ismetulluf. Since Vambry's identification of this woman is so vague, there is the possibility that she was the wife of Hasan Bey Melikov Zerdabi. Another possibility is that she was a teacher in the city of Tara, in Tobol'sk Province, "famous for her learning." See P/T, No. 18 (May 8, 1894), 36.

80. Alimat al-Benat Hanım, Muaşeret-i Edeb (The Rules of Good Manners), 2nd ed., St. Petersburg, tip. I. Boraganskago, 1899, 23 p. [H].

81. Alimcan ibn Muhammedcan al-Barudi, Kitab al-Erbain fi al-Hadis (The Book of the Forty Hadiths), St. Petersburg, n.p., 1899.

82. Alimcan ibn Muhammedcan al-Barudi, Luğat-i Süls (The Third Dictionary), Kazan, tip. imper. Universiteta, 1893, 41 p. [H]. Other editions: 2nd, tipo-lit. M. Chirkova, 1897, 40 p. [H]; 3rd, tip. B.L. Dombrovskago, 1902, 40 p. [H]; 4th, tipo-lit. I.V. Ermolaeva, 1907, 40 p. [H].

83. Alimcan ibn Muhammedcan al-Barudi, Nümune-yi Hisab (A Model for Calculation), Kazan, tip. imper. Universiteta, 1891, 24 p. Other editions: 2nd, 1896, 24 p [H]; 3rd, 1898, 24 p. [H]; 4th, 1903, 20 p. [H].

84. Alimof, Muhammed Safa ibn Badreddin, Nasaih-i Nafia (Useful Advice), St. Petersburg, tipo lit. I. Boraganskago, 1899, 69 p. [H].
This work, written by a Moscow mulla, is a collection of moralizing tales for children. "It is written in simple, but good language, and is suitable for reading at home and school." See P/T, No. 35 (September 23, 1901), 138.

85. Aliyef, Mulla Qari Qurban, Kitab-i Tarih (The Book of History), Kazan, n.p., 1889.

86. Ayfullah ibn Muhammed, Hıfz al-Sıhhat (The Preservation of Health), St. Petersburg, n.p., 1900.

87. Baramaçılık Barasında (On Sericulture), transl. by V.V. Bezobrazov, Tiflis, n.p., 1885.

88. Bikiyof, Muhammed Zahir ibn Carullah, Elüf yani Güzel Kız Hadice. Roman (Elüf, or the Beautiful Girl Hadice. A Novel), Kazan, tip. M. Chirkova, 1889, 77 p. [TTK]. Other editions: Kazan, tip. B.L. Dombrovskago, 1896, 77 p. [H]; tip. "Bayan ul-Hak", 1908, 59 p. [TE].
Muhammed Zahir (1870-1902) was one of the earliest modern Tatar writers. A social critic, he attacked the destructive influences of vice, much of it introduced to the Tatars by Russians, on the fabric of Tatar society in his novels Elüf and Güneh-i Kebair (see item 129).

89. Bukhara Amiri, Ruzname-yi Sefer Hayriyet (The Diary of a Goodwill Trip), Kazan, n.p., 1900.
Undoubtedly a work describing a trip to Russia by the Emir of Bukhara, Abdülahad (r. 1885 1910). The Emir frequently travelled throughout Russia—many of these travels were chronicled by Gasprinskii in P/T— and was often a guest of the Russian royal family in St. Petersburg. A man with some reformist inclinations, the Emir began receiving Gasprinskii's newspaper in 1892 [P/T, 27 (July 31, 1892), 53]. Gasprinskii expended a great deal of time and effort trying to obtain the Emir's permission to open new-method schools for native children in Bukhara. That permission was finally granted in 1908, but the school that resulted functioned for just a short time owing to the opposition of important Bukharan religious figures.

90. Al-Çulpani, Arabidan Manzuman Mevlud Tercümesi (A verse translation from Arabic of the Mevlud), Orenburg, n.p., 1900.

91. Damulla Şihabeddin Hazretinin Mersiyesi (Damulla Şihabeddin's Elegy), Kazan, tip. imper. Universiteta, 1892, 15 p. [H].
An elegy to Şihabeddin al-Mercani.

92. Fasiheddin ibn Mulla Muhieddin, Tıb Kitabı (A Book of Medicine), Kazan, n.p., 1896.

93. Fasiheddin ibn Mulla Muhieddin, Veba ve Andan Saklanmak için Istimal Kılına Turgan Esbab ve Çareler (The Cures and Remedies in Current Use for Protection Against the Plague), Kazan, tip. Vecheslava, 1893, 35 p. [TE].

94. F[atih] K[erimi], Bir Şakird ile bir Istudent (The Medrese Student and the University Student), Kazan, tip. B.L. Dombrovskago, 1899, 40 p. [H].
Muhammed Fatih Gilmanoğlu Kerimi (1870?-1945), the son of an ahund, completed his studies in an old-method medrese and then spent five years in Istanbul. Upon his return to Russia, he bought a printing establishment in Orenburg with the aid of the cedidist Abdülgani Bey Hüseynov (a millionaire merchant), and commenced a career in writing and publishing. He collaborated with a number of Muslim newspapers, including Şark-i Rus (The Russian Orient) and Al-Asr al-Cedid (The New Age), and in 1906 became chief editor of the newspaper Vakt (The Times). In addition, he wrote a number of works ranging from a geographical textbook and a teaching manual, to belletristic pieces such as Bir Şakird ile bir Istudent. In the latter, Kerimi launched an attack upon both the old Muslim educational system and the ignorance and lack of culture of the Muslim clergy. Brief notices concerning Kerimi can be found in Zaman Kalindar, 1909, op. cit., 39-40; Dzh. Validov, op. cit., 78-80; and A. Vambry, "The awakening of the Tatars," The Nineteenth Century, LVII (February, 1905), 219 ff.

95. F[atih] K[erimi], Salıh Babaynın Uylenuvi (The Marriage of Old Salıh), Orenburg, tip. Karimova, 1901, 16 p. [H].
Like the previous work, this short story is a critique of the old ways in Muslim life.

96. Gafil ibn Abdullah, Selime yani Iffet (Selime, or Innocence), Kazan, tip. B.L. Dombrovskago, 1316/1898-1899, 80 p. [H]. Other editions: 2nd, lito-tip. I.N. Kharitonova, 1904, 48 p. [H].
The author is the same as Rizaeddin ibn Fahreddin (see item 146). Selime yani Iffet was the first of his two novels, and for both he used the pseudonym Gafil ibn Abdullah in order to avoid public recognition. See A. Battal-Taymas, "La littrature des Tatars de Kazan," in Philologiae Turcicae Fundamenta, II, 767; also A. Sa'adi, op. cit., 106-107.

97. Galvanoplastin (Electrotypography), Kazan, n.p., 1899.

98. Gasprinskii, Ismail Bey, Rehber-i Muallimin yani Muallimlere Yoldaş (A Guide or Companion for Teachers), Bahçesaray, "Tercüman" matbaası, 1898, 30 p. [D, H].
One of Gasprinskii's most important works, in which he thoroughly discussed his educational ideas and the fundamentals of the new method. Rehber-i Muallimin was meant to be a guide for those who desired to administer or teach in a new-method mekteb. As such it provided detailed information on curriculum planning, teaching techniques, and even classroom organization, as well as a spirited defense of the new method itself.

99. Gasprinskii, Ismail Bey, Salname-yi Türk (A Turkic Almanac), Bahçesaray, Basmakhane-yi Islmiye, 1882, 81 p. [IUK].
One of Ismail Bey's earliest publications. In it he provided a wealth of information on a wide variety of subjects ranging from history and geography to contemporary events, education in various countries, the press, train schedules, and even a discussion of the history, spread, and treatment of syphilis.

100. Güçerli Feridun, Talimat-i Sokrat (The Teachings of Socrates), Bahçesaray, "Tercüman" matbaası, 1891.
A graduate of, and later instructor at, the Gori Pedagogical College, Feridun Bey acquired fame as a critic and historian of Azeri literature. His best work in this area is Azerbaycan Edebiyati Tarihi Materyallar, 4 vols. (Baku, 1925). B.E Nabiyev has written a full length study of Güçerli entitled Firidunbey Kchrli (Baku, 1963), which contains an extensive bibliography.

101. Habib al-NiMiftah al-Tevarih (The Key to the Histories), Kazan, n.p., 1889.

102. Hafız Muhammed Zakir Efendi, Enbiya Tarih-i (The History of the Prophets), Part I, Kazan, tip. M. Chirkova, 1899, 74 p.

103. Hakim Franklinin Tercüme Halı (A Biography of Master Franklin), trans. by Sadiq Abdurrahman, Orenburg, tip. Karimova, 1901.
According to Gasprinskii, P/T, No. 27 (July 23, 1901), this is a biography of the American Benjamin Franklin translated "into local Tatar from Ottoman." N. Berkes (op. cit., 282), notes that Franklin became quite popular in Turkey around 1870, when his Poor Richard came into vogue.

104. Hakverdof, Abdurrahim Bey, Dağılan Tifak (The Scattered Brood), St. Petersburg, n.p., 1899, 46 p. [H].
Abdurrahim Bey Hakverdov (Hakverdili, 1870-1933), was an important Azeri playwright and stage director. Dağılan Tifak, the first of his tragedies, was written while he was still a student. In this play, Hakverdof treats the problems associated with decaying feudalism by focusing on the inability of an aristocratic landowner, Nagaf Bey, to confront the changes in the world around him. The play accurately portrays the crisis facing the Azeri landowning class in the 1880s and 1890s, and is an indictment of that class. For further information concerning Hakverdov and his work, see K. Mamedov, Abdurragimbek Akhverdov (Baku, 1959).

105. Hasan Ata Kazani, Basiret (Understanding), Part I, Kazan, n.p., 1888.
Possibly Hasan Ata, a mulla from Kazan, who authored a work entitled Fen-i Mesaha al-Arz (Kazan, 1893). See P/T, No. 12 (April 2, 1893), 23.

106. Hasan Ata al-Sulabaşi, Muhtasar al-Viqaye (A Short Prophylaxis), Kazan, n.p., 1892.

107. Hasangayef, Tarih-i Islm (The History of Islam), Kazan, n.p., 1899.

108. Huseynof, Şemseddin, Merhaba-yi Şehr-i Ramadan (Welcoming the Month of Ramadan), Kazan, tip. imper. Universiteta, 1889, 18 p. [H]. Other editions: tip. M. Chirkova, 1894, 16 p. [H]; tip. imper. Universiteta, 1902, 16 p. [H].

109. Huseynof, Şemseddin, Pend Name-yi Attar (The Book of Advice of Attar), Kazan, tip. imper. Universiteta, 1890, 92 p. Other editions: 1899, 92 p. [H].

110. Ibnet-ul-Suleymani, Tergib al-Benat fi Taallüm al-Edebiyat (Encouragement of Daughters in the Reading and Writing of Literature), St. Petersburg, n.p., 1897.

111. Ibrahimof, Abdurreşid, ed., Mirat (The Mirror), St. Petersburg, tip. Ibragimova, 1900. [H: 2, 8-11, 13-18, 20-22; NYPL: complete.]
Abdurreşid Ibrahimov (1856-1944) was a major figure among the reformist ulema. His religious training was extensive, and included years of study under famous scholars in Mecca. After his return to Russia, Ibrahimov became a mulla, and in 1893 was elected kadı (judge) at the Muslim Spiritual Assembly in Orenburg. Because of his high position, he was allowed access to all of the Assembly's documents, many of which exposed the subservient relationship of the Muslim hierarchy to the Russian government. This revelation resulted in his becoming increasingly anti-Russian, an attitude which was central to his participation in Muslim cultural and political developments from the mid-1890s onward. He took an active part in Tatar journalism, particularly after the liberalization of thc Russian press laws in 1906, by editing or collaborating with such newspapers as Ulfet (Rapprochement), Al-Tilmiz (The Student), and Bayan ul-Hak (The Revelation of Truth). It was earlier, however, in 1900, that Ibrahimov initially became involved in periodical publishing when the first issue of Mirat appeared. Twenty-one subsequent numbers were published on an irregular basis between 1902 and 1909. Mirat was a literary and cultural, later political, review with a decidedly pan-Islamic tendency. While most articles were written in Tatar, some were in Arabic. A brief notice on Ibrahimov is found in Dzh. Validov, op. cit., 64-65.

112. Ibrahimof, Abdurreşid, Kaside-yi Mevlud al-Nabi (Panegyric on the Birth of the Prophet), St. Petersburg, tip. Boraganskago, 1901.
According to Gasprinskii, this work was recommended for use at prayer gatherings by the Orenburg mufti Sultanov. See P/T, No. 24 (June 30, 1901), 95.

113. Ibret-i Name (A Message of Warning), ed. by Muhammedcan Mitfaheddin, Kazan, tip. imper. Universiteta, 1871, 16 p. Other editions: 1872, 16 p. [TE]; 1883, n.p., 16 p. [H]; 1893, tip. imper. Universiteta, 24 p. [TE]; 1894, 16 p. [H]; 1899, tip. M. Chirkova, 16 p. [H]; 1902, 16 p. [H]; 1903, tip. Karimova, 16 p. [H]; 1906, 16 p. [H]

114. Idris Hamidi, Ilm-i Hayvanat (Zoology), Kazan, tip. B.L. Dombrovskago, 1900, 75 p. [H].
The first Tatar zoology textbook. Written, as Gasprinskii notes, in a "simple, comprehensible language," it was designed for use by both mekteb and medrese students. See P/T, No. 24 (June 30, 1901), 95.

115. Cevahir al-Hikyat ve al-Asilet ve Lataif al-Rivayat ve al-Mesle Tercüme min Kitab "Anis al Calis" al-Imam al-Suyuti (A Treasury of Tales and of Questions, of the Beauties of Traditions, and of Examples to Malefactors. A translation of Imam al-Suyuti's "Anis al-Calis"), trans. by Abdülkayyum al-Nasiri from the Arabic, Kazan, tip. imper. Universiteta, 1884, 139 p. [H]. Other editions: 4th, 1894, 138 p. [H, TE]; 5th, 1898, 136 p. [H]; 6th, 1900, 123 p. [H, TE]; 7th, 1905, 123 p. [H, BrM].
Originally the work of the Arab man of letters, Şayh Jalal al-Din Abd al-Rahman ibn Abu Bakr al-Suyuti.

116. Hanifa Hanım, Akide-yi Ehil al-Hakk (The Creed of a Man of God), Kazan, tip. B.L. Dombrovskago, 1312/1894-1895, 19 p. [H]. See item 79.

117. Hanifa Hanım, Tergib (Enticement), Kazan, n.p., 1899, 16 p. [H].

118. Hayrullah ibn Osman, Intihab (A Selection), Kazan, tip. B.L. Dombrovskago, 1314/1896 1897, 110 p. [H]. See item 37.

119. Kitab-i Kalila ve Dimne (The Book of Kalila and Dimne), trans. from the Arabic by Abdulallam Feyizhanoğlu, Kazan, tip. imper. Universiteta, 1889, 78 p. [H, LO].

120. Lataif (Anecdotes), Kazan, n.p., 1901, 32 p.

121. Likushin, Risale-yi Asel Ari (A Treatise on Honey Bees), trans. from the Russian, Tashkent, n.p., 1897.

122. Madatof, V., Grünmez Şal (The Invisible Shawl), Erivan, n.p., 1901, 25 p. Announcement of publication in P/T, No. 27 (July 23, 1901).

123. Menim Tercümanım-i Mükleme Fransovi ve Rusi (My translation of French and Russian Conversations), Kazan, n.p., 1901.

124. Mir Ali Sir Navai, Çil Hadis (Forty Hadiths), Taskent, lit. Lakhtina, 1893, 24 p. [H].

125. Muhammed Abbas, Kelapuşçi Kız-i Hikye (The Tale of the Girl who Sold Skullcaps), Kazan, n.p., 1900.
Muhammed Abbas was a pseudonym for the well-known Tatar political activist and literary figure, Muhammed Ayaz Ishaki (1878-1954). For a biographical sketch of Ishaki, see A. Bennigsen and Ch. Lemercier-Quelquejay, op. cit., 84-85, note 4. Kelapuşçi Kız was Ishaki's second short story, and juxtaposes the "old" and the "new" in an effort to discredit the former. See A. Battal-Taymas, "Die moderne Kazanturkische und Baschkirische Literatur," in B. Spuler, ed., Handbuch der Orientalistik (Leiden, 1963), V, Part I, 431-432.

126. Muhammed Fatih al-Kerimi, Hatunlar Vazaifi (The Duties of Women), Orenburg, n.p., 1910 [sic]. See item 94.

127. Muhammed al-Ishaki, Üç Hatun bilen Turmuş (Life with Three Women), Kazan, n.p., 1901 [?].
Ishaki's first play, published in 1900 according to A. Battal-Taymas, Kazan Türkleri (2nd ed., Ankara, 1966), 137.

128. Muhammed Sadik, Feryad Nazm mecmuası (A Collection of Plaintive Poetry), Kazan, tip. Karimova, 1901.
A collection of Muhammed Sadik's poetry. See the notice of publication in P/T, No. 24 (June 30, 1901), 95.

129. Muhammed Zahir Efendi, Güneh-i Kebair (The Deadly Sin), Kazan, tip. Vecheslava, 1890, 70 p. [TE].
The author is Muhammed Zahir Bikiev (see item 88). For summaries and analyses of Güneh-i Kebair, see N. Ashmarin, Ocherk literaturnoi deiatel'nosti Kazanskih tatar mokhammedan za 1880-1895 gg. (Moscow, 1901), 35-39, and A. Sa'adi, op. cit., 92-95.

130. Muhammedcan al-Kerimi, Feraiz-i Türk (Turkic Inheritance Law), Kazan, n.p., 1888.

131. Muhammedcan ibn Minhaceddin, ed., Kitab-i Itibar (The Book of Admonition), Kazan, n.p., 1888.

132. Musa Akğiğit, Hüsameddin Mulla-yi Hikye (The Tale of Mulla Hüsameddin), Kazan, tip. imper. Universiteta, 1886, 70 p.
Musa Akğiğt (1865-1923) was born in the Russian province of Penza, where he attended a state gymnasium. In 1885 he moved to Kazan, but two years later emigrated to Turkey. His major claim to fame is his novel Hüsameddin Mulla, which he wrote during his Kazan sojourn in a simplified Turkic language. His choice of language may have been influenced by Gasprinskii, with whom Akğiğt is said to have collaborated. [Istoriia Tatarskoi ASSR (Kazan, I955), I, 391, and A. Sa'adi, op. cit., 78.] Without doubt, the novel's content is supportive of Gasprinskii's program. The hero, the son of a village mulla, has received his education in Istanbul and returned home to open a school. There he employs a new, simpler method of instruction (usl-i cedid), and hence arouses the hatred of the old mulla. The plot is a classic one of conflict between cedidism and kadimism (i.e., the "old ways," or the reaction of those opposed to cedidism), in which such problems as reform of the educational system, the role of women in society, and religious fanaticism and obscurantism are debated. Analyses of the novel are to be found in A. Sa'adi, op. cit., 76-81, and N. Ashmarin, op. cit., 40-41. A modern Tatar edition, in Cyrillic, is available at Hoover.

133. Namaz Hocası (The Teacher of Prayers), Kazan, tip. Karimova, 1893,43 p. [H]. Other editions: 1897, 47 p. [H]; 1898, 48 p. [H]; 1903, 48 p. [H]; 1908, 42 p. [H]

134. Narimanof, Nariman, Bahadır ve Suna (The Gallant and Handsome Man), Parts I and II, Baku, tip. gubernskago pravleniia, 1896 and 1317/1899-1900, 19 p. and 8 p. [H].
Nariman Narimanof (1875-1925), educator, journalist, future Social Democrat and Communist, was an important young playwright who emerged among the Azeri Turks around the turn of the century. As is the case with so many of the writers included in Gasprinskii's bibliography, Narimanof was a social critic. Further details concerning his life and work are provided by M. Pavlovich, "Pamiati N. Narimanova," Novyi Vostok, No. 7 (1925), 1 ff. For a study of Narimanof's interest in language reform, see M. Mmmdov, Nriman Nrimanov v ana dili (Baku, 1971).

135. Narimanof, Nariman, Dilin belası. Qomediya (The misfortun of languaage. A comedy), Baku, tip. gubernskago pravleniia, I895,46 p. [H].

136. Narimanof, Nariman, Haci Zeynalabidin Takiyofun Elli Yıllık Maişete ve Cemaata Hidmetleri (Haci Zeynalabidin Takiev's Life and Fifty Years of Service to Society), Baku, matbaa Ahundova, 1900, 33 p. [H].
Haci Zeynalabidin Tagiev was a wealthy Azeri industrialist known also for his generous philanthropy. Gasprinskii often carried news items in P/T about Tagiev and his activities, and once included a special supplement entitled "Tagievskaia fabrika v Baku" in issue 17 (May 3, 1903). There is evidence that Gasprinskii himself was a recipient of Tagiev generosity when he needed funds to keep his publishing enterprise operating.

137. Narimanof, Nariman, Nadanlık (Ignorance), Baku, lit. G.N. Demurova, 1894, 74 p. [H].
Nadanlık deals with the terrible consequences of ignorance for the development of individuals and society. Through this drama, Narimanof criticized all those who believe that the mode of life is predetermined, and hence there is no need for education, science, or culture. A brief analysis of this play is available in Dzh. Dzhafarov, Azerbaidzhanskii dramaticheskii teatr (Baku, 1969), 59-61.

138. Osman Nuri Akçokraklı, Hikyet-i Nengecan Hanım Türbesi (The Tale of Nengecan Khanım's Grave), St. Petersburg, tip. I. Boraganskago, 1899, 45 p. [H]. See item 42.

139. Osman Nuri Akçokraklı, Kirilofdan Kısa Manzum (Short Verses from Krylov), St. Petersburg, n.p., 1891.
A translation of some of the verses of I.A. Krylov (1768-1844), the famous Russian fabulist.

140. Pushkin, A.S., Bağçesaray Çeşmesi (The Bahçesaray Fountain), trans. from the Russian by Osman Nuri Akçokraklı, St. Petersburg, tipo-lit. I. Boraganskago, 1899.
A bilingual edition in Russian and Gasprinskii's simplified Turkic.

141. Kabus Name Tercümesi (A translation of the Kabus Name), trans. from the Persian by Abdülkayyum al-Nasiri, Kazan, tip. imper. Universiteta, 1882, 140 p. [H]. Other editions: 2nd, 1898, 140 p. [H, L.O].
The Kabus Name is a famous Persian book of moral precepts.

142. Kazana Siyahat (A Journey to Kazan), Kazan, n.p., 1901, 58 p.

143. Kazaki, Üç Bed Baht (Three Misfortunes), Kazan, n.p., 1900.
The author is Ali Akbaroğlu Kemaleddin (Ali Asgar Kemal), discussed in item 78. Üç Bed Baht is a three-act play treating the controversy between the kadmist and cedidist viewpoints. See A. Battal-Taymas, Kazan Türkleri, op. cit., 139.

144. Kıssa-yi Simurc (The Tale of Simurc), Kazan, tip. Karimova, 1898,16 p. [H].

145. Rahim Cihanşahoğlu, Tarih-i Yedi Yüz Yılında (Seven Centuries of History), Kazan, n.p., 1889.

146. Rizaeddin ibn Fahreddin, Asar. Üz Memleketimizde olgan Islm Alemlerinin Terceme ve Tabakaları, Tarih Velodet ve Vefatları ve başka Ahvalları, hakkında yazılmiş bir Kitabdır (Traces. A Book Concerning the Biographies and Social Status of Muslim Savants who Live in Our Country, with Dates of Birth and Death and Other Events in Their Lives), 2 vols. (15 fasc.). Fasc. 1: Kazan, tip. imper. Universiteta, 1900, 32 p.; Fasc. 2-15: Orenburg, tip. M.-F. G. Karimova, 1900-1908, 470 p.
Rizaeddin ibn Fahreddin (1859-1936) was, along with Musa Carullah Bigi, one of the foremost reformist theologians among Russian Muslims. One-time kadı at the Orenburg Spiritual Assembly, Rizaeddin early on fell under the influence first of Şihabeddin al-Mercani, then of Gasprinskii, and finally of Jamal al-Din al-Afghani (perhaps the most famous proponent of pan Islamism). While he was serving in Orenburg and endeavoring to provide some order to the Assembly's archives, Rizaeddin began to develop an interest in history and biography. It was from those archives that he collected materials for his monumental—but never completed—biographical dictionary Asar. This work consists of biographies of outstanding Muslim theologians and savants who flourished in Russia from about the tenth century onward. Rizaeddin added his own and others' critical analyses of men and events, and often included actual documents and letters from the Assembly archives. A brief sketch of Rizaeddin's life and work can be found in Dzh. Validov, op. cit., 70-73; more extensive is A. Battal-Taymas, Rizaeddin Fahreddinoğlu (Istanbul, 1958).

147. Rizaeddin ibn Fahreddin, Kuran ve Tibaat (The Kur'an and Human Nature), Kazan, n.p., 1900.

148. Rizaeddin ibn Fahreddin, Şakirdlık Edeb (The Rules for Student Behavior), Kazan, tip. imper. Universiteta, 1899, 47 p. [H]. Other editions: 3rd, tip. I.N. Kharitonova, 1904, 48 p. [H]; 5th, tip. "Millet", 1908, 48 p. [H, TE]; 6th, 1909, 48 p. [H, TE]

149. Rizaeddin Fahreddin, Tanzimat (Reorganization), Kazan, tip. B.L. Dombrovskago, 1898, 80 p. [H].
An extremely important work concerned with the question of reorganizing the Muslim spiritual administration in Russia, which had been under state control since the end of the eighteenth century.

150. Rizaeddin Fahreddin, Terbiyeli Ana (The Well-Educated Mother), Kazan, tip. imper. Universiteta, 1898, 16 p. [H]. Other editions: 2nd, tip. Brat'ev Karimovykh, 1905, 16 p. [H]; Orenburg, tipo-lit. t-va "Karimov, Khusaynov i K-o," 1909, 16 p. [H, TE].

151. Rizaeddin Fahreddin, ed., Terbiyeli Hatun (The Well-Educated Woman), Kazan, tip. B.L. Dombrovskago, 1899, 29 p. [H]. Other editions: Orenburg, tip. Karimova, 1902, 29 p. [H]; 3rd, Kazan, lito-tip. I.N. Kharitonova, 1904, 24 p. [H]; tipo-lit. t-va "Karimov, Khusaynov i K-o", 1909, 24 p. [H, TE].

152. Sadreddin ibn Nizameddin Maksudi, Maişet. Milli Roman (The Means of Subsistence. A National Novel), Kazan, tip. Brat'ev Karimovykh, 1900, 78 p. [H].
On Maksudi, see item 45. Maişet is a lengthy short story about the life of a Kazan Tatar merchant. It was the author's first and last literary effort. According to A. Battal-Taymas, Kazan Türkleri, 136, the purpose of this work was "to instill a national ideal in the reader."

153. Salaheddin Efendi, Risale-yi Sullam al-Sama (A Treatise on the Staircase to Heaven), Kazan, tip. M. Chirkova, 1895, 77 p. [H].

154. Sami'allah Efendi, Malumat Ibtidaiye (Preliminary Knowledge), Kazan, n.p., 1894.

155. Seruddin ibn Miftaheddin, Nev Beşer (Mankind), Kazan, n.p., 1898.

156. Seruddin ibn Miftaheddin, Vazaif al-Insan (The Obligations of Man), Kazan, tip. B.L. Dombrovskago, 1898, 64 p.

157. Şah Ahmed Muhammedoğlu, Beyan ul-Hakk (A Declaration of Faith), Kazan, tipo-lit. imper. Universiteta, 1898, 68 p. [H].

158. Şemseddin al-Tahiri, Heyet-i Cedide (The New System), Kazan, n.p., 1896.

159. Şemseddin al-Tahiri, Mufassal Heyet-i Cedide Kitabı (A Detailed Book on the New System), Kazan, n.p. 1900.
Şemseddin al-Tahiri (1856-1932) was a reform-minded imam who supported educational change along cedidist lines. The two works cited above are critiques of the traditional system of teaching. A brief treatment of Tahiri's "philosophical" ideas is found in Yakh"ya Abdullin, "Tatar mg"riftchelre filosofiyseneng kayber ms'llre," Kazan Utları, No. 12 (December I972), especially 164-166.

160. Şerif al-Kerimi, ed., Kıssa-yi Üç Kız (The Tale of Three Girls), Kazan, tip. Karimova, 1897.

161. Şeyh Muhammed Murad Efendi, Insaf (Usl-i Cedid) (Justice. The New Method), Kazan, n.p., 1900.

162. Şihabeddin al-Mercani, Tarih-i Bulgar (The History of the Bulgars), Part I, Kazan, n.p., 1900.
I have been unable to find reference to any work by Mercani with this title. However, given the proneness for error in Gasprinskii's bibliography, the publication in question may actually be Mustafad al-akhbar fi akhvali Kazan ve Bulgar (Information Concerning the History of Kazan and Bulgar), the first part of which was published in Kazan in 1885, with the second part appearing in 1900. It was Part II that dealt with the history of Tatar culture after the conquest of Kazan by Muscovy in the mid-sixteenth century. For a recent study of Mustafad al-akhbar, but only of Part I, see M.A. Usmanov, "Istochniki knigi Sh. Mardzhani Mustafad al-akhbar fi akhvali Kazan ve Bulgar, ch. I, Kazan, 1885," in Ocherki istorii povolzh'ia i priural'ia. Sbornik statei, vyp. II-III (Kazan, 1969), 144-154.

163. Sindukof, Ahmed Şakir, Isim (Isim), Kazan, n.p., 1899.

164. Sindukof, Ahmed Şakir, Kitab al-Vasiyet (The Book of Advice), Kazan, tip. B.L. Dombrovskago, 1897, 16 p. [H].

165. Sultan Mecid Ganizade, Allah Divanı (The Divan of Allah), Baku, tip. gubernskago pravleniia, 1896, 18 p. [H]. See item 52.

166. Sultan Mecid Ganizade, Gelinler Hamaili (The Brides' Amulet), Baku, n p, 1901 [H].

167. Sultan Mecid Ganizade, Nadir Şah. Tragediya (Nadir Şah. A tragedy). Baku, tip. "Aror", 1898, 128 p.

168. Sultan Mecid Ganizade, Tulki ve Çakçak Bey (The Fox and Çakçak Bey), Baku, n.p., 1899.

169. Tahir iyle Zuhre (Tahir and Zuhre), Kazan, tip. Karimova, 1897.

170. Tolstoi, L., Birinci Rakıcı Hikye (The Tale of the First Distiller), trans. from the Russian, Baku, n.p., 1897.
Lev Tolstoi's "The First Distiller, or How the Little Devil Earned a Crust of Bread" (Peroyi vinokur, ili kak chertenok kraiushku zasluchil), was a comedy adapted from his short story "How the Little Devil Earned a Crust of Bread" (Kak chertenok kraiushku vykupal), both of which were published in 1886. The play is an amusing piece of temperance propaganda, centering on the efforts of an imp to lead some peasants to sin. His labors succeed only after he teaches the peasants how to make and drink vodka. Gasprinskii includes the play in his bibliography for much the same reason that Tolstoi wrote it: to point up the dangers of alcohol.

171. Türk Kadınları (Turkish Women), trans. from the French by Fatih Kerimi. Orenburg, tip. Karimova [?], 1901, 36 p.
According to Gasprinskii, P/T, No. 36 (September 30, 1901), 142, the author (not disclosed) discusses the advances made by Ottoman Turkish women during the previous forty years. Kerimi translated this work in order to propagandize the education and emancipation of Russian Muslim women.

172. Umidbayef, Muhammed Selim ibn Işmuhammed, Muhtasar al-Vikaye (A Short Prophylaxis), Ufa, n.p., 1890.
The author also published a translation of Pushkin's "Bakhchisaraiskii fontan" in 1901. See P/T, No. 42 (November 16, 1901), 166.

173. Urmanchef, Muhammed Ahsan, Münşaat-i Tatariya (The Writings of Tataria), St. Petersburg, tipo-lit. i. Boraganskago, 1900, 54 p. [H].

Part III
Supplementary Reading*

174. Abu'l-Hayr Nabioğlu, Hayriye-yi Nabi (The Good Deeds of Nabi), Bahçesaray, "Tercüman" matbaası, 1897, 52 p. [H].

175. Bahtiyar Nazim (Happy Poetry), Bahçesaray, "Tercüman" matbaası, 1889.

176. Beden-i Insan. Resimli (The Human Body. Illustrated), Bahçesaray, "Tercüman" matbaası, 1901, 15 p. [H].
An illustrated pamphlet offering basic information on human anatomy. Appropriately enough, Gasprinskii noted in the introduction (p. 1): "Before all else, man must know himself."

177. Defoe, Daniel, Hikye-yi Robinson (The Tale of Robinson), Part III, ed. by Muhammedşah Akçura, Bahçesaray, "Tercüman" matbaası, 1889, 48 p. Other editions: 2nd, 1894, 37 p. [H]; Parts III and IV, Kazan, tip. "Urnek," 1909 [TE].
In the preface (p. 2), Gasprinskii remarked that Hikye-yi Robinson was taken from an English novel that had been translated into many European languages, as well as into Russian, Ottoman Turkish, and Arabic. The widespread popularity of this novel made it appropriate that there should be an edition "in our language."

178. Divan-i Aşak Umr (The Poetry of Aşak Umr), Bahçesaray, "Tercüman" matbaası, 1887.

179. Garaib Adat-i Akvam (The Strange Customs of People), Bahçesaray, "Tercüman" matbaası, 1890.

180. Gasprinskii, Ismail Bey, Halera Vebası (The Cholera Plague), Bahçesaray, "Tercüman" matbaası, 1887, 16 p. [IUK].
A pamphlet designed to provide a basic understanding of the spread, prevention, and cure of cholera.

181. Gasprinskii, Ismail Bey, Meşhur payıtahtlar (Famous Capitals), Bahçesaray, "Tercüman" matbaası, 1901, 45 p. [H].
An illustrated manual providing brief surveys of seven world capitals: St. Petersburg, Istanbul, London, Paris, Rome, Vienna, and Berlin. Gasprinskii devotes very little space to his description of St. Petersburg, especially compared with Istanbul, but excuses this (p. 4) on the grounds that a special work is being prepared about Russia alone.

182. Gasprinskii, Ismail Bey, Turkistan Uleması (The Ulema of Turkestan), Bahçesaray, "Tercüman" matbaası, 1900, 24 p. [H].
A collection of biographical sketches of some important ulema from Turkestan. These biographies serve to support Gasprinskii's contention that Islam is compatible with science and learning, since "at a time when the arts and sciences were rarely propagated in Europe [i.e., during the Middle Ages], the speculative and practical sciences were being studied independently in Turkestan" (p. 1).

183. Gasprinskii, Ismail Bey, Usl-i Edeb. Şark ve Garb Ka'ideleri (The Method of Education. The Customs of East and West), Bahçesaray, "Tercüman" matbaası, 1901, 24 p. [H]
The purpose of this essay was to acquaint Muslims with the educational methods of worth that were used by Russians and Europeans.

184. Her Gün gerek Zakonlar (Rules for Daily Life), Bahçesaray, "Tercüman" matbaası, 1897.

185. Iki Bahadır (Two Heroes), Bahçesaray, "Tercüman" matbaası, 1886.

186. Iran. Resimli Mecmua (Iran. An Illustrated Magazine), Bahçesaray, "Tercüman" matbaası, 1901.

187. Maişet Muharebesi (The Struggle for a Livelihood), Bahçesaray, "Tercüman" matbaası, 1886.

188. Ma'lmat-i Naftiye (Useful Information), Bahçesaray, "Tercüman" matbaası, 1901.

189. Medeniyet-i Islmiye (The Civilization of Islam), Bahçesaray, "Tercüman" matbaası, 1889, 48 p.

190. Mevlud-i Cenab Hazret Ali (The Mevlud of the Honorable Ali), Bahçesaray, "Tercüman" matbaası, 1900.

191. Muhammedşah Akçura, ed., Aruz-i Türk (The Prosody of Turkic), Bahçesaray, "Tercüman" matbaası, 1897, 16 p. [H].

192. Muhammedşah Akçura, ed., Çoban Kız (The Shepherd Girl), Bahçesaray, "Tercüman" matbaası, 1897, 17 p. [H].

193. Muhammedşah Akçura, ed., Küre-yi Arzin Suret-i Teşkili (The Forrnation of the Earth's Shape), Bahçesaray, "Tercüman" matbaası, 1897, 56 p.[H].
An introduction to cosmography, in which the author treats such topics as the universe before the formation of the earth, the origins of the earth itself, and its composition.

194. Muhammedşah Akçura, ed., Nasihat-i Hükema (The Advice of Wise Men), Bahçesaray, "Tercüman" matbaasl, 1897, 26 p. [H].

195. Muhammedşah Akçura, ed., Nevadir-i Nefise (The Rarity of Beautiful Objects), Bahçesaray, "Tercüman" matbaası, 1897, 16 p. [H].
A collection of witticisms.

196. Muhammedşah Akçura, ed., Ramadan Hediyesi (The Gift of Ramadan), Bahçesaray, "Tercüman" matbaası, 1897, 17 p. [H].

197. Muhammedşah Akçura, ed., Ramadan Nasihati (The Admonition of Ramadan), Bahçesaray, "Tercüman" matbaası, 1897, 20 p. [H].

198. Murad Bey, Muhtasar Tarih-i Islm (A Short History of Islam), Bahçesaray, "Tercüman" matbaası, 1890, 78 p. [H].

199. Nasihat-i Tibiyya (Medical Advice), Bahçesaray, "Tercüman" matbaası, 1901.

200. Risale-yi Tergib (A Treatise on Encouragement), Bahçesaray, "Tercüman" matbaası, 1894.

201. Rusiye Coğrafyası (Russian Geography), Bahçesaray, "Tercüman" matbaası, 1885, 56 p.

202. Şemseddin Sami Bey, Yer (The Earth), Bahçesaray, "Tercüman" matbaası, 1897, 54 p. [H].
Şemseddin Sami Bey (1850-1904) was an Ottoman author, journalist, and lexicographer, much admired by Gasprinskii.

203. Tashih Akaidden (On the Correction of Dogma), Bahçesaray, "Tercüman" matbaası, 1901.

204. Tecrübe ve Sanav (Experience and Thinking [?]), Bahçesaray, "Tercüman" matbaası, 1886.

205. Temsilat-i Kirilof (The Maxims of Krylov), trans. from the Russian, Bahçesaray, "Tercüman" matbaası, 1901. See item 139.

206. Yunan Hükeması (The Wise Men of Greece), Bahçesaray, "Tercüman" matbaası, 1901.
A pamphlet comprising biographies of classical Greek savants.

207. Zoraki Tabib. Komediya (The Involuntary Physician. A Comedy), Bahçesaray, "Tercüman" matbaası, 1901.

* This section heading was not included in the original text. As noted by Gasprinskii, its thirty-four entries were published in Bahesaray by the "Tercüman" matbaası, Ismail Bey's own printing establishment.


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